Objective 1.3: Configure Local Storage

 

Planning server storage- Using Storage Spaces:

Windows Server 2012 R2 Includes a disk visualization technology called “STORAGE SPACES”, which enables a server to concatenate storage space from individual physical disk and allocate that space to create virtual disks of any size supported by the hardware.

Understanding Windows disk Settings:

Partitioning Styles: MBR, and GUID GPT.

Disk Types: Basic Disks and Dynamic Disk tape. Can not use different types per disk, but can mix per system.

Divide disk into partitions or volumes. Partitions = BASIC DISK, Volume=Dynamic

Format the partitions or volumes: NTFS,FAT,and NEW “ReFS”

 

Selecting a partition style:

MBR- MBR has bee naround a while.

GPT- Can’t boot from GPT  unless you’re running efi

Server manager uses GPT.

 

Disk Types:

 

A basic disk using the MBR partition style organizes data by using primary partitions, extended partitions and logical drives.  Primary partitions usually are “active” and can host an OS

 

Basic MBRs- 3 paritions, on the 4th you create an “extended partition”, it is no longer considered “primary parition”.

GPT- you can haveu p to 128 volumes, all of which appear as primiary.

Alternative is to convert to dynamic disk that will create a partition that takes the entire disk.

 

Volumes

Five options for volume types

Simple Volume- Consist of space from a single disk. After you have created a simple  volume you can extend it to multiple disk and create a spanned or striped volume.

Spanned Volume – Consist of 2 to 32 physical disk, all of which must be dynamic disks. Take a large amount of disk to create a single large volume.

Striped volume- 2 to 32 all of which must be dynamic.  Used to speed up read speeds.

Mirrored Volume- Identical amount of space on two physical disks. reads and writes to both disks.

Raid 5- Consists of space on three or more physical disks. Stripes and parity, can handle 1 failure with 3 disk.

 

Working with disks

 

All WS2k12R2 have “File and Storage Services available.

Server manager is the only graphical tool that can manage storage pools and create virtual disks. It can also perform some- but not all- of the standard disk and volume management operations on physical disks.

Adding a new physical disk

Add the disk as normal, the disk will be considered “offline” and in an unknown partition style.

When you bring it online, next you will initialize it- by default it will be a GPT style partition. You cna change this at any time by using disk management.

 

Creating and mounting a VHD:

 

Hyper V relies on VHD(s) or VHDX(s) to store virtual disk data in files.

 

Creating a new VHD

 

You can get to the Disk Management area where you create VHDs by going to Server Manager> Tools>Computer Management > Disk Management. Right click the action menu and select create VHD.

 

VHD is the original format, but limited to 2040 GB.

VHDX is supports 64TB but can only be read by computers running windows server 2012 and 2012 R2.

 

There are two types of virtual disks.
Fixed Size (recommended): Allocates all the disk space specified at once.

Dynamically Expanding: Allocates disk space as you need.

Creating a storage pool:

Storage pools are great to turn smaller disk into larger bigger POOLS of disks.

To get there Server Manager> File and Storage Services> Click Storage Pools.

Powershell:

To obtain designations for the storage subsystem run Get-StorageSubSystem and Get-PhysicalDisk commands.

Some additional Switches

-EnclosureAwareDefault: Specifies whether the storage pool is being created from disk housed in a disk enclosure that supports SCSI enclosure services. This enables the pool to use additional information provided by the enclosure.

-ProvisioningTypeDefault : Specifies the type of provisioning to be used for the create of virtual disks from this pool.

-ResiliencySettingsNameDefault: Specifies the resilience settings I.E. Simple Mirror or Parity the system should use.

 

Creating Virtual Disks

After you create a storage pool, you can use the space to create as many virtual disks as you need.

 

Server Manager> File and Storage Services> Storage Pools> New Virtual disks.

You have 3 options for layouts:

Simple- one physical disk and no fault tolerance- 1 disk dies and you’re down

Mirror- Two physical disks that create a mirror of each other. Single disk failure protection with two disks. Two disk failure protection with five disks.

Parity- At least three disk and provides fault tolerance by striping parity information with data.

You can once again decide between thin and fixed.

 

1)If one of his disk part of the storage pool fails, so will all 3 disk.

2)He will need to mirror the original disk, or use raid 5

3) Raid 5 with 3 disks or mirror two disks